Protecting your civil liberties requires understanding your rights under the law. One right that confuses many people is the right of freedom from warrentless searches, which stems from the Fourth Amendment. This critical addition to the Constitution protects from unreasonable searches. It specifically states individuals have a right to be secure in their persons as well as their homes.
However, there are many times when you need to invoke your Fourth Amendment rights or risk having them violated. While law enforcement officials will generally avoid overtly violating your rights, they may attempt to manipulate you into waiving some of them. Understanding when it is legal for law enforcement to enter or search your home can help you stand up to your freedom from unreasonable searches.
When they have permission or a warrant
If an officer asks to enter your home, the best option is almost always to ask if you can speak outside and closing the door behind you. Even if you have not intentionally broken the law, it's possible for officers in your home to notice something that they feel is evidence of a crime. That can lead to them searching your home or returning with a warrant.
In situations where law enforcement officials have reason to suspect a crime or evidence of a crime in your home, they could ask a judge for a search warrant. These documents allow police to legally enter and search private properties. It's important to know that the warrant should name the location and the items or evidence being sought. When served a warrant, you should always review it thoroughly before allowing access to your home and waiving your rights.
When there's indication of a crime happening
If police officers engage in the pursuit of a criminal who runs into a home, law enforcement can enter that home without a warrant or permission. The reason why is simple. If officers witness a crime happening, pursue someone for questioning or notice clear indicators of a crime in progress, they can enter a private residence.
It's important to remember that not only screaming voices or gunshots will provide probable cause to suspect a crime. Certain smells or sounds, like incense or even a toilet flushing, could give law enforcement reason to enter your home. The Supreme Court upheld a lower court's ruling that police could lawfully enter a home if they heard noises indicating the potential destruction of evidence. Toilets, showers, paper shredders and even garbage disposals could give law enforcement a reason to force entry into your home.
Understanding potential risks to your privacy and freedom from unreasonable searches can help you prepare to stand up for them if the time comes. If you face criminal charges and believe law enforcement violated your Fourth Amendment rights, you should seek additional information and guidance.